Both involve ion movement. Both use ion channels to move ions across the cell membrane, in or out of the cell.
Passive Transport (or Diffusion) moves ions from high concentration to low, using no metabolic energy. Active Transport moves ions from low concentration to high, using metabolic energy in the form of ATP. Active Transport uses an ion pump (or Sodium/Potassium pump) to move 3 sodium ions out of the cell and 2 potassium ions in to the cell through the energy of 1 ATP molecule.
Atoms are singular
Molecules are 2 or more combined atoms
Atoms are not bonded
Atoms are not bonded
1.refer to the attached file
2. Compound are substances which can be formed by chemically combining two or more elements. Mixtures are substances that are formed by physically mixing two or more substances.
3. Valency is the combining capacity of the atoms to form a molecule either with same or different elements is defined as valency.
compounds:water,hydrogen chloride,aluminium oxide,calcium carbonate
5. The iron reacts with water and oxygen to form hydrated iron(III) oxide, which we see as rust. Iron and steel rust when they come into contact with water and oxygen – both are needed for rusting to occur. Boiling the water removes the oxygen and the layer of oil prevents it from re-entering.
6. When potatoes, eggplant or apples are peeled or cut, certain enzymes are exposed to air. When an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase, also known as tyrosinase is exposed to oxygen, oxidation takes place, which leads to browning of the surfaces of these fruits.
7.crystal are the substance which contain the fixed amount of water in it
to prepare crystal of sodium chloride
1. take NaCl in the beaker .
2. add water to it .
3. heat the solution of NaCl and water =evaporation
4. then you will obtain the crystal of NaCl
NaCl is also called common salt
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10. The RBC will shrink.
Phospholipid bilayer (formed by lipids and proteins)
14.It is selectively-permeable (allows certain substances to enter/exit)
15.Because it allows certain materials to move through but not others
16. 'Cyclosis' is the movement/flowing of the cytoplasm which allows substances to move from one part of the cell to another.
17. The primary function of the plasma membrane is to separate the inner substances of the cell from its environment and to protect it from pathogens.
18. a) Provides rigidity to the plant cell.
b)Protects it from harsh environmental factors
19. Rudolf Virchow gave the cell theory, which was extended by Schleiden and Schwaan
20. The shrinking away of the protoplasm (living content) of a plant cell away from its cell wall
21. Pinocytosis (of water) and phagocytosis (of food particles)
22.Na+ and K- ions
23. Diffusion and osmosis
24. Diffusion- movement of particle from region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration.
Osmosis- Movement of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration THROUGH A SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
25. CELL WALL- disputed if it is semi-permeable or selectively-permeable
26. A chromosome is a condensed bond of chromatids, and it is wound around histone proteins during cell division
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21)Taking food by amoeba,Osmosis
23) Diffusion and osmosis
24)#In diffusion molecular concentration is from higher to lower.
#In osmosis the molecular concentration is Lower to higher.
25)#Plasma membrane is a porous, hard and protective layer for plants.
a a change in which the physical state of the reactants is not changed . eg folding of the paper and boiling of water
b. a change in which the physical state of reactants is changed.eg burning of paper and digestion
8.solid:-coal ,wood ,sugar
9. physical :- can be reversed
no change in colour
chemical:- cant be reversed
change in colour
10.b and d physical
a ,c,e are chemical
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An atom is the smallest particle of any element, whereas, a molecule is formed when two or more atoms are held together with the help of a chemical bond.
Atoms are single neutral particles. Molecules are neutral particles made of two or more atoms bonded together. An ion is a positively or negatively charged particle.
According to science atom is the smallest unit of an element that can or cannot exist freely. While on the other hand, a molecule is a set of atoms that are held together with the help of a bond and is the smallest unit of a compound. Furthermore, an atom can or cannot exist in a free state.
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