2.covering of fathers for insulation
3.forelimbs modified into wings and hind limbs used for walking,perching and swimming
4.presence of pneumatic bones to reduse weight
5.presence of additional air sacs to supplement respiration
We all know that the flying is the main locomotory process of most of the birds.
To ensure a smooth and hassle free flight,there are different types of Biological modifications observed in the body of the birds.
1) The body shape of the bird is aerodynamic.
2) The body of the bird is covered with feathers.
3) The bones of the bird are light and hollow.
4) The less necessary organs are not present in the bird anatomy,in order to reduce the body weight.
And many more.
(b)Forelimbs are modified into wings for flight.
©The avian flight muscles are used for flying.
(d)The long bones are hollow and connected to air cavities to reduce weight.
(e)The bones are light.
(f)Feathers decrease water loss from body.
(g)High metabolic rate to lift body from ground.
8) Water vascular system is found in echinodermata
9)The members of subphyla Vertebrata possess notochord during the embryonic period. The notochord id replaced by a cartilaginous or bony vertebral column in the adult. Thus all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates.
10) Modifications that help birds in flight are their Pneumatic or hollow bones, they are warm blodded, streamlined body shape, absence on urinary bladder to reduce weight.
12) Chondrichthyes are marine animals. Have cartilaginous endoskeleton, ventrally located mouth, notochord persist throughout life, gill slit are seperate and are without operculum
Osteichtyes include both fresh and marine and have endoskeleton made of bones. have stremlined body. Have 4 pair of gill slits which are covered by operculum. Terminal mouth. Most important is presence of air bladder which regulate bouyancy.
14) Larva of echinoderms shows Bilateral symmetry.
You asked too many questions, i'll answer the rest later...hope this helps you
THESE ARE THINGS THAT OBSERVED IN BIRDS THAT HELP THEM TO FLY
(i) Covering of feathers for insulation
(ii)Covering of feathers for insulation( Forelimbs modified into wings and hind limbs used for walking, perching, and swimming
(iii)Forelimbs modified into wings and hind limbs used for walking, perching, and swimming Presence of pneumatic bones to reduce weight
(iv) Presence of pneumatic bones to reduce weight Presence of additional air sacs to supplement respiration
answer: (a) Birds have feathers which help them to fly. (b)Forelimbs are modified into wings for flight. (c)The avian flight muscles are used for flying.
The modifications that are observed in birds that help them are-
⭐Streamlined body for rapid and smooth movement.
⭐Covering of feathers for insulation.
⭐Forelimbs modified into wings and hind limbs used for walking, perching, and swimming.
⭐The presence of pneumatic bones to reduce weight.
⭐The presence of additional air sacs to supplement respiration.
1- closely related species could get diff phylums if common fundamental features are not considered, the classification would be more complex and time taking which would complicate the process.
2- 1st -identification, 2nd- characterization , 3rd- nomenclature, 4th- classification.
3-by this character we classify animals into 3 classes -
ACEOLOMATES - body cavity absent and mesoderm lining absent
PSEUDOCOELOMATES- body cavity present but incompletely lined by mesodermal lining.
EUCOELOMATES- body cavity present and completely lined by mesodermal lining.
4-intracellular digestion occurs inside the cell while extracellular occurs outside the cell that is in digestive cavity. the latter one is a advanced feature.
5-in indirect development larval stages are formed while in direct development the zygote or embryo directly forms adult one without any intermediate larval stage.
6-high reproductive capability, simplified digestive system, hooks present.
7-hard exoskeleton made up of chitin, high reproductive capacity, lay thousands of eggs at a time
8-option c echinodermata. in porifera water canal system is present.
9-phylum chordata is divided into protochordata and vertebrata so vertebrata is a subclass of chordata. so we justify the statement.
10-it provides buoyancy which avoids sinking of pisces but it is only present in ostheicthythes.
11-pneumatic bones i.e. hollow bones which contribute to less body weight and feathers help them to fly.
12-No it can't be equal as the eggs are having high risk as compared to viviparous young ones so no of eggs produced are greater than young ones produced.
bones of the birds wing is almost empty from inside which make him light weighted and let him fly.
Birds have feathers which help them to fly.
explanation:you shooo much..