Rainbows are one of the most beautiful things on Earth, containing a spread of the colors that our eyes can see. That's why we use the expression 'every color of the rainbow.' But did you know this expression isn't technically true -- that the rainbow is actually missing a few colors?
If you could look extremely closely at a rainbow and analyze its light, you would find dark 'gaps' in the otherwise continuous spectrum of light. This is because pure, white light can be shined through a prism and split into every color our eyes can see. But the Sun doesn't send us pure, white light. It sends us an atomic spectrum.
An atomic spectrum is a spectrum that has been shined through or originates from a material (usually a gas) and contains patterns that are characteristic of the elements present in the material. When we analyze the Sun's spectrum, for example, we can figure out what elements are present in the Sun.
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