Bromine water is a highly oxidizing intense yellow to red mixture containing diatomic bromine (Br2) dissolved in water (H2O). It is often used as a reactive in chemical assays of recognition for substances which react with bromine in an aqueous environment with the halogenation mechanism. The most common compounds that react well with bromine water are phenols, alkenes, enols, the acetyl group, aniline, and glucose. In addition, bromine water is commonly used to test for the presence of an alkene which contains a double covalent bond which reacts with the bromine water which changes its color from an intense yellow to a colorless solution. Bromine water is also commonly used to check for the presence of an aldehyde group in compounds. In this reaction as well the color of bromine water is changed to colorless from yellow (oxidation process).
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The most important monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, act as reducing agents in alkaline solution. ... Sucrose does not react with Fehling's solution, as this disaccharide of fructose and glucose (2,1 glycosidic linkage) has no free aldehyde or ketone groups.
Acetylation of glucose with acetic anhydride gives glucose petnaacetate which confirms the presence of five -OH groups. (ii) Glucose reacts with hydroxylamine to give monoxime. ... (iii) Glucose reduce ammonical silver nitrate (Tollen's reagent) to metallic silver.
When glucose is heating with hydrogen iodide, it completely reduces to yield n-hexane. Hydrogen iodide is a reducing agent. When glucose is treated with bromine water, it gives gluconic acid as a product.
When glucose is heated in the presence of HI, it reduces to n−hexane
Glucose reacts with 3 moles of phenylhydrazine to form Glucosazone, a crystalline derivative of Glucose. It is stabilised by intramolecular hydrogen bonding.
H2SO4 protonates the alcohol to make R−OH2+ and HSO4−, the HSO4−
then takes a hydrogen from the carbon atom adjacent to the alcohol, yielding an alkene and water. Alcohol dehydration reactions using acid are just elimination reactions.
Additionally, at temperatures above 340 degrees Celsius, sulfur trioxide exists in equilibrium with sulfuric acid in significant concentration. The presence of sulfur trioxide explains the presence of sulfur dioxide (via dissociation), or some redox chemistry occurring with the sugar.
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My book (NCERT India) states that n-hexane is formed when glucose is heated in the presence of hydrogen iodide. That is, the following reaction takes place:
This seems a bit strange to me because I only know of three possibilities that can occur when a compound containing hydroxyl groups is treated with a strong acid:
A substitution reaction, where all the −OH groups are replaced by −I
A dehydration reaction, where H2O molecules would be eliminated and it would end up with few double bonds.
Formation of an ether.
Osazones are a class of carbohydrate derivatives found in organic chemistry formed when sugars are reacted with excess ofphenylhydrazine.
Firstly glucose with phenylhydrazinegives glucosephenylhydrazone by elimination of a water molecule from the functional group.
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