In the year 1740 there broke out conflict between France and England in Europe over the question of Austrian succession as to who should sit on the throne of Austria. It was a major conflict famous as the War of Austrian succession involving bigger powers and continued for long eight years. The echo of the war was heard on the sea shores of Southern India.The war in Europe came to an end in 1748 after the signing of the treaty at a place Aix-La-Chapelle between the European powers. According to the provisions of the treaty war in India was brought to an end and Madras was returned to the English East India Company.
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#1 Social Inequality in France due to the Estates System.
#2 Tax Burden on the Third Estate.
#3 The Rise of the Bourgeoisie.
#4 Ideas put forward by Enlightenment philosophers.
#5 Financial Crisis caused due to Costly Wars.
#6 Drastic Weather and Poor Harvests in the preceding years.
#7 The Rise in the
1. Absolute Monarchy
2. Corrupt Leadership
3. Unfair Land distribution
4. Unfair Tax code
5. Failure of Louis XVI to accept reforms
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1. Political Cause:
Louis XIV was the exponent of this view. The French Monarchs engaged themselves in luxurious and extravagance at the royal court of Versailles. They enjoyed unlimited power. By the Letter de Catchet, they arrested any person at any time and imprisoned them. They paid no attention towards their subjects.
Louis XIV (1643-1715) of the Bourbon Dynasty was a powerful monarch. He was an efficient, hard-working and confident ruler. He participated in many wars. Louis XIV’s concept of unlimited royal power is revealed by his famous remarks, “I am the State”.
Louis XV (1715-1774) succeeded Louix XIV He was a ‘butterfly monarch’. His defective foreign policy weakened the economic condition of France. Louis XV fought the Seven Years War against England which brought nothing for France. France became bankrupt due to over expenditure in wars and luxury. He realised it later on. Before his death he cried-‘After me the Deluge’.
After Louis XV, Louis XVI (1774-1793) ascended the throne of France. During that period, the economic condition of France became weak. Louis XVI was an innocent and simple man. But he was influenced by his queen Marie Antoinette who always interfered in the state affairs.
Out of frustration he uttered-“Oh! What a burden of mine and they have taught me nothing.” Marie Antoinette was the daughter of Marie Theresa, the Austrian Empress. She always felt proud as she was the daughter of Austrain Empress. She always enjoyed luxurious and extravagant life. She sowed seed of the French Revolution. Thus, the autrocratic monarchy, defective administration, extravagant expenditure formed the political cause of the French Revolution.
2. Social Cause:
The Social condition of France during the eighteenth century was very miserable. The then French Society was divided into three classes— the Clergy, Nobles and Common People.
They exploited the common people in various ways. The higher clergy lived in the midst of scandalous luxury and extravagance. The common people had a strong hatred towards the higher clergy. On the other hand, the lower clergy served the people in true sense of the term and they lived a very miserable life.
The Nobility was regarded as the Second Estate in the French Society. They also did not pay any tax to the king. The Nobility was also sub divided into two groups-the Court nobles and the provincial nobles. The court nobles lived in pomp and luxury. They did not pay any heed towards the problems of the common people of their areas.
They paid the taxes like Taille, Tithe and Gable. Inspite of this, the clergies and the nobles employed them in their fields in curve. The Bourgeoisie formed the top most group of the Third Estate. The doctors, lawyers, teachers, businessmen, writers and philosophers belonged to this class. They had the wealth and social status. But the French Monarch, influenced by the clergies and nobles, ranked them as the Third Estate.
So they influenced the people for revolution. They aroused the common people about their rights. Thus, the common people became rebellious. The lower Clergies and the provincial nobles also joined their hands with the common people along with the bourgeoisie. So the French Revolution is also known as the ‘Bourgeoisie Revolution’.
3. Economic Cause:
The economic condition of France formed another cause for the outbreak of the French Revolution. The economic condition of France became poor due to the foreign wars of Louis XIV, the seven years War of Louis XV and other expensive wars. During the reign period of Louis XVI, the royal treasury became empty as extravagant expenses of his queen Marie Antoinette.
To get rid of this condition. Louis XVI appointed Turgot as his Finance Minister in 1774. Turgot tried to minimise the expenditure of the royal court. He also advised the king to impose taxes on every classes of the society. But due to the interference of Queen Marie Antoinette, Louis XVI dismissed Turgot.
Then Necker was appointed as the Finance Minister in 1776. He published a report on the income and expenditure of the State in order to arouse the people. But he was also dismissed by the king.
causes of the french revolution. the causes of the french revolution can be attributed to several intertwining factors: cultural: the enlightenment desacralized the authority of the monarchy and the catholic church, and promoted a new society based on reason instead of traditions.
social causes, economic cause, political cause and immediate cause
The growing popularity of the works of a number of intellectuals who argued for social reform
Crop failures in 1788 compounded existing economic restlessness
French participation in the American Revolution that drove the government to the brink of bankruptcy
Resentment among the bourgeoisie about being excluded from political power
The French monarchy, no longer seen as divinely ordained, was unable to adapt to the political and societal pressures being exerted on it
Widespread inequality between the rich and poor classes alongside growing dissatisfaction with the antiquated feudal system among the poorfollow me✌mark me as brainliest❣
struggle for hegemony and empire outstrips and fiscal sources of state.
conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the reform of the tax system led to paralysis and bankruptcy.
Explanation:Although scholarly debate continues about the exact causes of the Revolution, the following reasons are commonly adduced: (1) the bourgeoisie resented its exclusion from political power and positions of honour; (2) the peasants were acutely aware of their situation and were less and less willing to support
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