The New Economic Policy was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient. Lenin characterized the NEP in 1922 as an economic system that would include "a free market and capitalism, both subject to state control", while socialized state enterprises would operate on "a profit basis".The NEP represented a more market-oriented economic policy (deemed necessary after the Russian Civil War of 1918 to 1922) to foster the economy of the country, which had suffered severely since 1914. The Soviet authorities partially revoked the complete nationalization of industry (established during the period of War Communism of 1918 to 1921) and introduced a system of mixed economy which allowed private individuals to own small enterprises, while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries.mIn addition, the NEP abolished prodrazvyorstka (forced grain-requisition) andintroduced prodnalog: a tax on farmers, payable in the form of raw agricultural product. The Bolshevik government adopted the NEP in the course of the 10th Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party (March 1921) and promulgated it by a decree on 21 March 1921: "On the Replacement of Prodrazvyorstka by Prodnalog". Further decrees refined the policy.
Other policies included monetary reform (1922–1924) and the attraction of foreign capital. The NEP policy created a new category of people called NEPmen- nouveau riches due to NEP. Joseph Stalin abolished the New Economic Policy in 1928.
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horizons of the soil
soil consists of the following horizons:
1. horizon a or topsoil
it is also called the humus layer, is rich in organic material. layer consists of decomposed material and organic matter. is the reason, the topsoil has a dark brown color. the hummus makes the topsoil soft, porous to hold enough air and water. in layer, the seeds germinate and roots of the plants grow. many living organisms like earthworms, millipedes, and centipedes, bacteria, and fungi are found in layer of soil.
what are the different properties of soil?
2. horizon b or subsoil
just below the topsoil lies another layer called subsoil or horizon-b. it is comparatively harder and compact than topsoil. it is lighter in color than the topsoil because there is less humus in layer. layer is less organic but is rich in minerals brought down from the topsoil. it contains metal salts, especially iron oxide in a large proportion. farmers often mix horizon-a and horizon-b when their fields.
what is soil erosion?
3. bedrock or horizon c
bedrock is also known as parent rock and lies just below the subsoil. it contains no organic matter and made up of stones and rocks, so it is very hard. layer represents a transition zone between the earth’s bedrock and horizon a and b.