Souse wiring al acances are connected in
9 electric curent has a single path through circuit in
b) series combination
10 ons can be defined as
change passes through a wine is 0.5c chen current of 50 ma will flow in
el 10 seconds
resistance of copper wire slength is imand it's diameter is 2 mm is
when a potential erence of one volt is applied across ends of a conductor and one ampere
of current passes through then its resistance will be
b) half ohm
c) three ohms
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potential difference between its
in chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. hybrid orbitals are very useful in the explanation of molecular geometry and atomic bonding properties and are symmetrically disposed in space. although sometimes taught together with the valence shell electron-pair repulsion (vsepr) theory, valence bond and hybridisation are in fact not related to the vsepr model.
chemist linus pauling first developed the hybridisation theory in 1931 to explain the structure of simple molecules such as methane (ch4) using atomic orbitals. pauling pointed out that a carbon atom forms four bonds by using one s and three p orbitals, so that "it might be inferred" that a carbon atom would form three bonds at right angles (using p orbitals) and a fourth weaker bond using the s orbital in some arbitrary direction. in reality, methane has four bonds of equivalent strength separated by the tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5°. pauling explained by supposing that in the presence of four hydrogen atoms, the s and p orbitals form four equivalent combinations or hybrid orbitals, each denoted by sp3 to indicate its composition, are directed along the four c-h bonds. concept was developed for such simple chemical systems, but the approach was later applied more widely, and today it is considered an effective heuristic for rationalising the structures of organic compounds. it gives a simple orbital picture equivalent to lewis structures.
hybridisation theory is an integral part of organic chemistry, one of the most compelling examples being baldwin's rules. for drawing reaction mechanisms sometimes a classical bonding picture is needed with two atoms sharing two electrons. hybridisation theory explains bonding in alkenes and methane. the amount of p character or s character, is decided mainly by orbital hybridisation, can be used to reliably predict molecular properties such as acidity or basicity.
orbitals are a model representation of the behaviour of electrons molecules. in the case of simple hybridisation, approximation is based on atomic orbitals, similar to those obtained for the hydrogen atom, the only neutral atom for the schrödinger equation can be solved exactly. in heavier atoms, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, the atomic orbitals used are the 2s and 2p orbitals, similar to excited state orbitals for hydrogen.
hybrid orbitals are assumed to be mixtures of atomic orbitals, superimposed on each other in various proportions. for example, in methane, the c hybrid orbital forms each carbon–hydrogen bond consists of 25% s character and 75% p character and is thus described as sp3 (read as s-p-three) hybridised. quantum mechanics describes hybrid as an sp3 wavefunction of the form n(s + √3pσ), where n is a normalisation constant (here 1/2) and pσ is a p orbital directed along the c-h axis to form a sigma bond. the ratio of coefficients (denoted λ in general) is √3 in example. since the electron density associated with an orbital is proportional to the square of the wavefunction, the ratio of p-character to s-character is λ2 = 3. the p character or the weight of the p component is n2λ2 = 3/4.
9 electric curent...