union list , state list & concurrent list
three lists given in the Indian Constitution are:
1. Union List- Subjects of national importance
2. State List - Subjects of State and Local importance
3. Concurrent List - Subjects of common interest
Under the Seventh Schedule, there are three lists – the Union, State and Concurrent. The Union List has a range of subjects under which the Parliament may make laws. This includes defence, foreign affairs, railways, banking, among others
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“it is impossible to about the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved. it is impossible for a bird to fly on only one wing.” — swami vivekananda
women are not born, but made. what better than india to exemplify statement by simone de beauvoir. with the whole world celebrating international women’s day with great pomp and show, it would be only apt to analyse the position and space indian women occupy today, and comparing it to the time 60 years ago when the country had just gained independence. with women participating in nationalist movements, to being pushed into the domestic household space, to their resurgence as super-women today, women in our country have seen it all.
there have been innumerable debates about gender in india over the years. much of it includes women’s positing in society, their education, health, economic position, gender equality etc. what one can conclude from such discussions is that women have always held a certain paradoxical position in our developing country.
on one hand, india has seen an increased percentage of literacy among women, and women are now entering professional fields, the practices of female infanticide, poor health conditions and lack of education still persisting still continue. even the patriarchal ideology of the home being a woman’s ‘real domain’ and marriage being her ultimate destiny hasn’t changed much. the matrimonial advertisements, demanding girls of the same caste, with fair skin and slim figure, or the much criticised fair and lovely ads, are indicators of the slow changing social mores. if one looks at the status of women then and now, one has to look at two sides of the coin; one side is promising, and one side is bleak.
when our country got its independence, the participation of women nationalists was widely acknowledged. when the indian constitution was formulated, it granted equal rights to women, considering them legal citizens of the country and as an equal to men in terms of freedom and opportunity. the sex ratio of women at time was slightly better than what it is today, standing at 945 females per 1000 males. yet the condition of women screamed a different reality.
were relegated to the household, and made to submit to the male-dominated patriarchal society, as has always been prevalent in our country. indian women, who fought as equals with men in the nationalist struggle, were not given that free public space anymore. became homemakers, and were mainly meant to build a strong home to support their men who were to build the newly independent country. women were reduced to being second class citizens. the national female literacy rate was an alarmingly low 8.6%. the gross enrolment ratio (ger) for girls was 24.8% at primary level and 4.6% at the upper primary level (in the 11-14 years age group). there existed insoluble social and cultural barriers to education of women and access to organised schooling.
a very few were allowed into the public space, she was expected to manage on her own, maintaining her domestic role as a homemaker. in spite of the sharda act was passed in the 1950s to raise the marital age limit for girls, marriage particularly in north india was quite prevalent though the average age at marriage for females was increased to 18. sprawling inequalities persisted in their access to education, health care, physical and financial resources and opportunities in political, social and cultural spheres. it was almost for women to have a choice or a say in matters of marriage, career or life. rather she had no voice at all. the practice of dowry was as common as ever.
also read: dowry is an obsolete practice? is how my urban educated family gave in to it