India’s first mission to moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from Sriharikota.
The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon.
Chandrayaan-2 will be an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1.
Chandrayaan-2 is configured as a two module system comprising of an Orbiter Craft module (OC) and a Lander Craft module (LC) carrying the Rover developed by ISRO.
• The functions of the two modules are as follows:
The Orbiter Craft with payloads onboard will orbit around the moon and perform the objectives of remote sensing the moon. The payloads on the orbiter will conduct mineralogical and elemental studies of the Moon’s surface.
The Lander Craft with scientific payloads will soft land on the lunar surface at a predetermined location on the lunar surface.
The Rover is released by the Lander Craft and has the mission objective of performing mobility activities on low gravity and vacuum of Moon surface with Semi-Autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance capability.
The Orbiter payloads are : Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) and Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) for mapping the major elements present on the lunar surface; L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for probing the first few tens of meters of the lunar surface for the presence of different constituents including water ice; Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) for the mapping of lunar surface over a wide wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present; Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE-2) to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere and a Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) for preparing a threedimensional map essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology.
The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) and Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) payloads onboard Rover would perform elemental analysis of the lunar surface near the landing site.
Few technological elements in a lander which need to be developed:
1. Need to reduce the velocity of the lander as it comes for soft landing.
2. To develop the mechanism that is involved in a lander.
3. To locate precisely where to land by taking pictures and then steering the lander to a place it has
Status: Charayaan 2 will be launched using GSLV by 2016 or 2017.