A group of cells that perform specific functions are known as tissues.
Its types are:
Permament or Growth tissue
Tissues are group of similar cells performing specific functions . it is very important because it controls blood circulation etc..
》》 A group of cells having common function and structure are known as tissues. 《《
There are four basic types of tissue:
In plant anatomy, tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue systems: the epidermis, the ground tissue, and the vascular tissue. Epidermis - Cells forming the outer surface of the leaves and of the young plant body. Vascular tissue - The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. please follow me
Nutrition permits us to take in and use food substances that the body converts to energy and body structure. The digestive system includes all the organs and glands involved in this process of eating and digesting. Starting in the mouth, a long muscular tube provides continual fluid and vital nutrients. The coiled intestines alone are about 24 feet long. After we consume food, the body mechanically and chemically breaks it down, then transports it for absorption and defecation (final waste removal). The digestive glands (salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder) produce or store secretions that the body carries to the digestive tract in ducts and breaks down chemically.
Food processing begins with ingestion (eating). The teeth aid in mechanical digestion by masticating (chewing) food. Mastication permits easier deglutition (swallowing) and faster chemical breakdown in the digestive tract. During mastication, salivary glands secrete saliva to soften the food into a bolus (semi-solid lump). Saliva contains the salivary amylase enzyme, which digests carbohydrates (starches), and mucus (a thick liquid), which softens food into a bolus. Ingestion starts both chemical and mechanical digestion.
In deglutition, the tongue pushes the bolus toward the pharynx (throat) and into the esophagus, a muscular tube that leads from the throat to the stomach. To prevent food or liquid from entering the trachea (windpipe), the epiglottis (a small flap of tissue) closes over the opening of the larynx (voice box) during deglutition.
Upon entering the esophagus, peristalsis (wave-like contractions) of smooth muscle carries the bolus toward the stomach. Two layers of smooth muscle, the outer longitudinal (lengthwise) and inner circular, contract rhythmically to squeeze food through the esophagus. Throughout the digestive tract, smooth muscle peristalsis aids in transporting food.
From the esophagus, the bolus passes through a sphincter (muscular ring) into the stomach. All sphincters located in the digestive tract help move the digested material in one direction. When the stomach is empty, the walls are folded into rugae (stomach folds), which allow the stomach to expand as more food fills it.
In the stomach, food undergoes chemical and mechanical digestion. Here, peristaltic contractions (mechanical digestion) churn the bolus, which mixes with strong digestive juices that the stomach lining cells secrete (chemical digestion). The stomach walls contain three layers of smooth muscle arranged in longitudinal, circular, and oblique (diagonal) rows. These muscles allow the stomach to squeeze and churn the food during mechanical digestion.
Powerful hydrochloric acid in the stomach helps break down the bolus into a liquid called chyme. A thick mucus layer that lines the stomach walls prevents the stomach from digesting itself. When mucus is limited, an ulcer (erosion of tissue) may form.
Food is digested in the stomach for several hours. During this time, a stomach enzyme called pepsin breaks down most of the protein in the food. Next, the chyme is slowly transported from the pylorus (end portion of the stomach) through a sphincter and into the small intestine where further digestion and nutrient absorption occurs.
Digestion and absorption: small intestine
The small intestine is about 20 feet (6 meters) long and has three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum is where most chemical digestion takes place. Here, bile from the gallbladder and enzymes from the pancreas and intestinal walls combine with the chyme to begin the final part of digestion.
Bile liquid is created in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile emulsifies (breaks into small particles) lipids (fats), which aids in the mechanical digestion of fats. The pancreas and gland cells of the small intestine secrete digestive enzymes that chemically break down complex food molecules into simpler ones. These enzymes include trypsin (for protein digestion), amylase (for carbohydrate digestion), and lipase (for lipid digestion). When food passes through the duodenum, digestion is complete.
From the duodenum, chyme passes to the jejunum and ileum. Here, tiny villi (finger-like projections) cover the walls of the small intestine. The cells that line the villi are covered with small projections called microvilli (brush border). These projections increase the surface area of the small intestine, allowing the chyme to contact more of the small intestine wall. The increased contact causes more efficient food absorption.
During food absorption, food molecules enter the bloodstream through the intestinal walls. Capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) within the villi absorb products of protein and carbohydrate digestion. Lymph vessels (lacteals) within the villi absorb products of fat digestion and eventually lead to the bloodstream.
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Plant Tissue Definition
Plant tissue is a collection of similar cells performing an organized function for the plant. Each plant tissue is specialized for a unique purpose, and can be combined with other tissues to create organs such as leaves, flowers, stems and roots. The following is a brief outline of plant tissues, and their functions within the plant.
Types of Tissue in Plants
Meristematic plant tissue is different than all other plant tissue, in that it is the main growth tissue of the plant. All cells originate from one meristem or another. The apical meristem is the plant tissue which drives above ground growth, and decides the direction of the plant. Root meristems dig into the soil in search of water and nutrients. Subapical meristems divide the plant and carry leaves in different directions. Intercalary meristems provide growth from the middle of the plant, to extend the leaves upward into the sunlightMeristematic plant tissue, at the central point, is undifferentiated and ready to divide into any other type of plant cell. Meristematic cells divide asymmetrically. This means that one plant remains undifferentiated, while the other cell takes on a more specialized form. This cell will then continue to divide and develop into a plant tissue, which can help form a new organ, such as a leaf. In this way meristematic plant tissue is equivalent to animal stem cells. These cells are totipotent or pluripotent, meaning they can divide into many different types of plant tissue.
Simple Plant Tissue
There are several basic forms of plant tissue, formed from mostly identical types of cells. The first is the epidermis. The epidermis in plants serves the same function as it does in animals. It is a plant tissue formed of thin and densely packed cells, meant to separate the inside of the organisms from the outside. The epidermis is often covered in a layer of waxy protection, to stop the plant from burning or drying out in the sun. The epidermis also contains guard cells, which operate small opening called stoma. These stoma control the passage of air and water through the leaves, allowing plants to move water and nutrients up from the soil.
Sometimes, another form of simple plant tissues covers the epidermis, cork. Cork is a plant tissue seen in woody plants, which dies and becomes an outer layer of bark. This tissue is also soaked with a special waxy substance which protects against insects, the sun, and the elementsAs you turn inside the plants, the next plant tissue is parenchyma. This tissue is comprised of thin-walled cells with very large central vacuoles. The turgor pressure of these vacuoles is elevated when they are full of water, which gives structure and support to the plant. Parenchyma plant tissue is found in all parts of the plant, and makes up large portions of the leaves, stems and roots. In the leaves, parenchyma plant tissue is highly involved in the process of photosynthesis. All parenchyma plant tissue is living, and carries out functions continually. Parenchyma tissue, when wounded, can revert back into meristematic plant tissue to regrow damaged areas.
Like cork, sclerenchyma plant tissue is a structural tissue which dies, but the cell wall and structure remain. Sclerenchyma plant tissue forms long, connected fibers called sclereids. These fibers can extend throughout a plant to provide support and strength to various organs. This plant tissue is commonly found in stems, bark, and in the hard shells of some fruits and nuts, such as pears. Collenchyma plant tissue is similar to sclerenchyma, in that it provides support. Often, collenchyma plant tissue is seen in young plants, with a limited number of cells. As such, only a portion of the cell wall in these cells will be thickened for support. This plant tissue is usually found wherever there is new growth and the other structural cells have not set in yet.
Complex Plant Tissue
The complex tissues in a plant deal with moving nutrients and water to the leaves, while removing the products of photosynthesis from the leaves. Photosynthesis produces the sugar glucose. Modified and bound to other 6-carbon sugars, the substance becomes sucrose or a variety of other disaccharides. In this form it can be moved with small amounts of water and can be transported efficiently throughout the plant. The complex tissues of the plant aid in this overall effort to supply the roots with food as they supply the leaves with water and nutrients.
The two main forms of plant tissue used in this process are xylem and phloem. Xylem is a plant tissue specially designed for transporting water and nutrients
Stomach is not a muscular bag.
Functions: When we swallow the food, it will enter into stomach region in 9 sec by esophageal sphincter. When the food came into the stomach region, hydrochloric acid by parietal cells happen. Food in the throat region is called bolus. When it reaches the stomach it is called chyme.food-bolusHCL-parietal cellsGastric glands-gastric juicesDuodenum-duodenal juice
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Connective tissues are a part of animal tissues.
There are different types of connective tissues in our body like aerolar tissue, adipose tissue, bone, tendon, ligament, cartilage and blood.
It's a connective tissue which has a fluid matrix called plasma. It's function is that it flows and transports gases, hormones, digested food and waste materials to different parts of the body.
It is a connective tissue of hard matrix composed of Calcium and Phosphorus.
This tissue is non flexible tissue. It forms the framework that supports the body.
When two bones can be connected to each other this tissue is formed.
It has little matrix and it is very elastic tissue, it has considerable strength.
Tendons is a tissue which connects muscles to the bones they have limited flexibility and high strength.
In this type of tissue the cells are widely spaced cells. It smoothens bones surfaces at joints and is present in nose, trachea, ear.
it's found between the skin and muscles around blood vessels and nerves in the bone marrow. It fills the space between the organs, supports internal organs and helps in repair of tissue.
This tissue stores fats. It's filledw ith fat globules and it's found between internal organs and below the skin.
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