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2. It runs North-South but specifies East West Position of a Point
3. Longitude of:
- Prime Meridian = 00
- East = 900E or +900
- West = 900W or -900
4. It is also known as meridian. No meridian is parallel to other rather all longitudes converge to North Pole and South Pole
5. Every Line of Latitude is a Great Circle
6. Longitude is measure from 00 to 1800
The meridians or lines of longitude have the following characteristics: All meridians are of the same length and each one is a semi-circle. If any two opposite meridians are taken together, they form a complete circle, which is a great circle.
1) Meridians of longitude are drawn
from the North pole to the South
pole and are at right angles to the
2) The meridians are also useful for
designating time zone.
time zones are the Zones by which we can exact know the time
answer:The meridians or lines of longitude have the following characteristics:1. All meridians are of the same length and each one is a semi-circle.2. If any two opposite meridians are taken together, they form a complete circle, which is a great circle.
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Important properties of meridians are- they all meet at the poles, the distance decreases as we go from the equator towards the poles, the distance between any two meridians is longest at the equator which is near about 11km, all meridians are of same length and are semi circles.
The relation between time and longitudes are that for one degree of change there is a four minute interval and the east is always ahead of time.
b. Meridians of longitudes run from the north to the south pole , intersecting at the poles.
c. Around the earth there are 360 longitudes. Each longitude has 4 minutes time difference
d.The middle point of the meridian is called as prime meridian.
e.It is the Prime Meridian of Greenwich which has the sun at the highest point in the sky, and helps in determining time.
Longitudes help in determining time:
1.. It is the Prime Meridian of Greenwich which has the sun at the highest point in the sky, thus all those places in that meridian would have mid day.
2. Around the earth there are 360 longitudes. Each longitude has 4 minutes time difference.
3. Thus, if we calculate, all the places lying on the east of Greenwich experiences sunrise earlier and are ahead of greenwich time and those on the west are behind by 1 hour. ( as earth would rotate 15° in an hour or 1° in four minutes )
4. Time is calculated by virtue of difference between Greenwich time and longitude on which a particular place lies
what is the model code of conduct and who does it apply to? the mcc is a set of guidelines issued by the election commission to regulate political parties and candidates prior to elections, to ensure free and fair elections. is in keeping with article 324 of the constitution, gives the election commission the power to supervise elections to the parliament and state legislatures. the mcc is operational from the date that the election schedule is announced till the date that results are announced. thus, for the general elections year, the mcc came into force on march 5, 2014, when the election schedule was announced, and will operate till may 16, 2014, when the final results will be announced. how has the model code of conduct evolved over time? according to the press information bureau, a form of the mcc was first introduced in the state assembly elections in kerala in 1960. it was a set of instructions to political parties regarding election meetings, speeches, slogans, etc. in the 1962 general elections to the lok sabha, the mcc was circulated to recognised parties, and state governments sought feedback from the parties. the mcc was largely followed by all parties in the 1962 elections and continued to be followed in subsequent general elections. in 1979, the election commission added a section to regulate the ‘party in power’ and prevent it from gaining an unfair advantage at the time of elections. in 2013, the supreme court directed the election commission to include guidelines regarding election manifestos, it has included in the mcc for the 2014 general elections. what are the key provisions of the model code of conduct? the mcc contains eight provisions dealing with general conduct, meetings, processions, polling day, polling booths, observers, party in power, and election manifestos. major provisions of the mcc are outlined below.
general conduct: criticism of political parties must be limited to their policies and programmes, past record and work. activities such as: (a) using caste and communal feelings to secure votes, (b) criticising candidates on the basis of unverified reports, (c) bribing or intimidation of voters, and (d) organising demonstrations or picketing outside houses of persons to protest against their opinions, are .
meetings: parties must inform the local police authorities of the venue and time of any meeting in time to enable the police to make adequate security arrangements.
processions: if two or more candidates plan processions along the same route, organisers must establish contact in advance to ensure that the processions do not clash. carrying and burning effigies representing members of other political parties is not allowed.
polling day: all authorised party workers at polling booths should be given identity badges. these should not contain the party name, symbol or name of the candidate.
polling booths: only voters, and those with a valid pass from the election commission, will be allowed to enter polling booths.
observers: the election commission will appoint observers to whom any candidates may report problems regarding the conduct of the election.
party in power: the mcc incorporated certain restrictions in 1979, regulating the conduct of the party in power. ministers must not combine official visits with election work or use official for the same. the party must avoid advertising at the cost of the public exchequer or using official mass media for publicity on to improve chances of victory in the elections. ministers and other authorities must not announce any financial grants, or promise any construction of roads, provision of drinking water, etc. other parties must be allowed to use public spaces and rest houses and these must not be monopolised by the party in power.
election manifestos: added in 2013, these guidelines parties from making promises that exert an undue influence on voters, and suggest that manifestos also indicate the means to promises.
is the model code of conduct legally binding? the mcc is not enforceable by law. however, certain provisions of the mcc may be enforced through invoking corresponding provisions in other statutes such as the indian penal code, 1860, code of criminal procedure, 1973, and representation of the people act, 1951. the election commission has argued against making the mcc legally binding; stating that elections must be completed a relatively short time (close to 45 days), and judicial proceedings typically take longer, therefore it is not feasible to make it enforceable by law. on the other hand, in 2013, the standing committee on personnel, public grievances, law and justice, recommended making the mcc legally binding. in a report on electoral reforms, the standing committee observed that most provisions of the mcc are already enforceable through
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